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America's very first president, George Washington, laid on his deathbed on December 14, 1799. It had a severe sore throat and terrible fever. My six in the morning George Washington's Dr. believed it was time for bloodletting. "Bloodletting" means purposely making incisions in a patient's arm and draining their blood. In essence, it's an attempt at blood cleanup to reduce harful overflow of bad "humors" or excess blood in the body.
A myth had arisen centuries before around me practice of bloodletting to remove "bad humors." In ancient times people believe that illness was due to "bad humors" that resided in the blood and elsewhere. My draining blood from a patient the patient's bad humors would be released from the body, or so the story goes.
In this case Washington was not a good candidate for bloodletting considering his age condition. His physician drained 18 ounces of blood and Washington's condition did not improve. Twice more of the conscientious physician grain Washington's lifeblood and neither time that his condition improved. We can only imagine that our first president suffered mightily as his throat became inflamed as the epiglottis grew with infection. Finally upon the fourth bloodletting, Washington gasped as last.
Now can you imagine Orange County or Los Angeles County doctors performing bloodletting on their patients these days? We might imagine that San Diego County native peoples and emigrating Spaniards suffered bloodletting. Because when the early Spanish emigrants strode onto San Diego beaches, the native people probably stared in disbelief at these invaders powerful weapons and appearance. We might imagine that bloodletting, the first for San Diego County blood cleanup, became part of the native ritual as the Spaniards impose their culture upon these native people. We can imagine that village which doctors stared in disbelief as Spanish doctors force their primitive bloodletting medicine upon the suffering Indians.
In the case of Washington, to regress, a blood transfusion would've been preferable to bloodletting. And the possibility of a blood transfusion at that time is not so far-fetched. More than 130 years earlier, between 1665 and 1668, Europe was abuzz with excitement with the possibility that blood transfusions had arrived. French and English natural philosophers, other wise known as "scientists," trying to outdo one another with learning the secrets to blood transfusion and the nature of human blood. In these days blood cleanup was a common occurrence in Laborde Tories as both dogs and humans were subjects of wow died physicians performing bloodletting in blood transfusions among and between species. Before long they had hope that blood secrets would be no one by experimenting until the rates the first successful transfusion in humans.
Even the famous British Royal Society physicians were known to inject many types of fluids into the veins of animals. Beer, wine, opium, milk, Merkley, and most probably year and were injected into dogs and cats. They even transfer blood in transfusions between small dogs to large dogs and large dogs and small dogs old dogs would serve as blood sources for young dogs and vice versa. In France the science of blood research followed canine transfusion with unbelievable and terrible results.
Then, a young physician by the name of Jean-Baptiste Denis transfused the first animal to human experiment.
A 15-year-old boy survived the first lambs blood transfusion into the remains this nave boy. The results were stunning at first. The boys survived but soon Denis would reach his apogee of success. On a mentally ill man 34 years of age named Antoine Mauroy, Kaz blood was transfused. After an ounce of blood had been transfused into the man's arm. It looked pretty good the next morning. Then, wouldn't you know Mauroy died. And as the French legal system would have it, young Dr. was accused of murder, but cleared of any crimes by a sympathetic terrorist judge. At this time the idea transfusion became less important than other medical matters. It would take a backseat for over a century.
Most people understand that suicide hurts its survivors deep down. We know this too because of our experience and losses to suicide. We are cleaners. We cannot ease the pain. We can, though, help the healing process to begin by returning the scene to a biologically safe condition.
Sometimes friends and relatives will ask us why we charge different rates for cleaning.
It is the additional cleaning that causes us to raise prices. Besides cleaning, more labor may be involved with special requests, sealing, and chasing effluents.
Who is the victim?
Who is the responsible party?
Where is the wound?
What type of weapon was used?
Where did this suicide occur?
How long was the deceased down?
Of course, the weapon used will influence the amount of cleaning involved in death a cleanup. Imagine the difference between a handgun suicide and a shotgun suicide, both using the head as their target. Now imagine that the handgun victim used a small caliber handgun and placed a jacket over their head before pulling the trigger.
In this case, the 22 caliber handgun has a low velocity. This means that the projectile moves slowly when compared to larger handguns. At times, the 22 caliber handgun's projectile will not exit the victim's head because of the victim's head size, and the trajectory of the projectile. The human skull is quite thick and a small projectile will enter the skull, given enough velocity. The projectile may not exit the skill, given the projectiles velocity. Some deaths occur as a victim places a jacket, towel, or blanket over their head before pulling the firearm's trigger. Of course, these are planned out suicides, not homicides involving a second party. In most cases, fabrics act to shield the surrounding area from bio-waste debris. They also play a small part in slowing the projectile, if significant at all.
A significant amount of bio-waste from the impact of the small projectile to the covered head remains near the victim because of the caliber of the handgun and the head cover.
Imagine the shotgun suicide victim without the head cover. Also, a large caliber shotgun will cause a greater degree of debris spread. Usually, a shotgun will cause a 360 degree, ceiling to floor spread of human bio-waste. If a closet door is open, if a bathroom door is open, or if drawers are left open, the amount cleaning will be much greater than in the above case.
In this last case, we "chase effluents," blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM).
So how did medical practitioners reach the point at which they no longer relied on bloodletting? This point did not come easily because age-old superstitions required on penning from their stake in places. Natural philosophers, as they were called back then, tussled with nature's troops. And at some point they overcame their disagreements about bloodletting.
We know that William Harvey's experiments with human blood and its circulation in the body played a role in overcoming the old superstitions.
In the first half of the 1700s Harvey's understanding of the human body led to a letter finding that human blood circulated in an organized channeled manner. Meanwhile René Descartes had proclaimed that the mind and body were separated and that the body was essentially a machine. So as humanity strove into the age we call the "Enlightenment" researchers soon began to look at organisms as tiny machines and great machines. The machine age had arrived with the modern era.
Some people say that a perfect storm had arrived in Europe between France and England, Catholics and Protestants, and especially, science and superstition. And at the heart of this perfect storm we find blood transfusion.
Change did not come quickly or easily. Some 17th-century physicians and ruling class moral agents. That science was toying with the forces of nature and would strike a deal with evil is not kept within the bounds of the church.
Today we continue our peculiar relationship to blood. Note the use of terms like "blueblood," "true blood," "blood brothers," "bloody fool," and so forth. Personal identity has often been wrapped up in stories about blood. There is a race and racism often involve blood stories relating to one's ancestral lineage.
In the 1940s American racial segregation made its way to our nation's blood banks. The American Red Cross in November 1941 announced that it would not accept blood from African-American donors for use in the blood banks. The Red Cross did change its tune after several months. It did begin to collect "colored" donors blood for special storage.
It did keep the blood segregated. The American Red Cross had no clear scientific evidence to support their decision for blood segregation. They continued superstitions that had been around for ages. Blood we know is not immune to superstitious belief system.
In those days people believe that one's blood carried their race "marker" in these markers would be inherited by the children and grandchildren. This line of reasoning made its way into the military and some soldiers were worried that if given "Negro blood" that their children or grandchildren would look like African-Americans of birth. Science knew better, but as today with global warming and the lack of climate literacy in the American population, people accepted dogma over science.
Finally after years of quibbling about blood, some researchers declared that the best blood as one's own blood. And when one's own blood was not available, led from a sibling and at best and most cases, blood donated by a twin.. Race prejudices would continue for some time in the blood research failed.
Today more than 4 million blood donors donated blood to the Red Cross and without them are blood banks would suffer mightily. There is a great need for blood to help patients survive surgery as well as trauma victims to survive terrible accidents. Every two seconds someone in the United States requires a blood transfusion.
In the blood cleanup business we soon learn that trauma victims was a lot of blood before death. Blood cleanup from homicide, suicide, and unattended deaths also involves other bodily fluids from victims. But we know soon enough that in the blood cleanup field human blood is human blood and there's no way to tell if such a thing is more than one human race exist from what we see in blood during blood cleanup activities.
Roughly every two seconds someone in the United States requires a blood transfusion. These blood transfusions may arise from the need for more blood during surgery, traumatic accidents including vehicles and motorcycles, and industrial accidents which may include amputations.
When we read about the blood science in the 17th century – – it's discoveries in his deadly politics, we must frown as we crawl the 21st century and its deadly politics around the new climate change caused by human beings, the Anthropocene. Regarding race, in the mid-20th century there were concerns about race be transferred during transfusions. We can find racial politics deeply embedded in the blood transfusion industry as well as the margins of medical science.
In fact, with today's anti-science mood in the Republican Party, we must wonder if the intense debates, ignorant as they appear, if they continue to brew over whether or not scientist should be allowed to pursue their climate science as they do, we must wonder if the public response should be so mixed or even hostile. Of course the public confused. Our nation's leaders are confused and they really don't care about science finding facts, truth.
The issue of embryos comes up. Even on embryos slated for destruction and fertility clinic, there is the idea that such destruction constitutes an affront to the dignity and sanctity of human life.
Although, we don't see such sentimentality towards the living and fence that are bombed almost daily in Libya these days. Neither do we see concern for infants born in households without medical care or insurance. We see the court cited the 1996 Dickey-Wicker amendment and its decision, which prohibited the use of federal funds for "research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than that allowed for in research on fetuses and neutral." This is in essence superstition, but understandable, especially in light of the work in science. People simply do not understand the facts.
The idea of "sentient" or "sentience" comes to mind in the issue of fetal remains in death cleanup as well as blood cleanup. And what point does the embryo become sentient, capable of filling fear, anxiety, or pain?
Sentience is an ability to feel or to perceive. It's a matter of being mature enough or aware enough to experience subjectively. In the 18th century philosophers use this idea to tell the difference between our ability to think from her ability to fail. In these modern days of Western philosophy sent answers the ability to simply fill, experience sensations. So in terms of the embryo and other life forms of that matter, sentiments ought to be the greatest concern when it comes to inflicting pain, anxiety, or death.
Some 350 years ago religion pushed back against blood transfusion as an unholy to control disease and illness. At times it was a matter of just superstition and ignorance; at other times it was a valid response to the horrific attempt to unknowingly transfuse blood between species, sheep to humans, dogs to humans, cattle to dogs, and more. We can understand their reluctance to abide by blood transfusion when it was apparent there was no foundation for these reckless experiments.
Today, it is believed by scientists that projecting values onto the conduct of science is anathema to our principles. The historic success of science is accomplished in a value free environment, but not always. Still, within the ethical limits of conduct, we believe that no scientifically unanswerable questions should be out of bounds. This is a long way from 350 years ago when it was considered blasphemous staff some questions.
These days we should question everything under the sun. Mansanto executives have friends in the White House cabinet, for example. There's climate change deinal. That's enough for radical skepticism. Today we have thousands of nuclear warheads pointing at the earth and more being added every year. The warheads are more powerful than ever and in some cases one nuclear warhead is capable of destroying entire states. This doesn't include the nuclear waste fallout.
So in this case when we talk about blood cleanup were talking about blood cleanup on a massive scale and this far outweighs issues related to using fetal cadaver materials for science research. At least in terms of ethics morality, there is no comparison between the two. Today science is looking for a way to interact with society without offending the morals and ethics of society.
On the flip side of this issue, is the issue of society especially government denying the foundations and facts produced by science, especially in climate science. So 350 years ago blood transfusion was carried out without boundaries. Today scientific hopes and pitched social fears around racial issues are misplaced.
We should ask, "should I society set limits on it science? And if it should set limits, what sort of limits and at what cost?"
By the end of the 1600s both London and Paris were clogged by a Denson city Hayes. Most buildings Fires burning in chimneys and even in the streets to fight off the icy winds. In 1667 the winter was the coldest on record. The price of wood as fuel skyrocketed. Fresh food nearly disappeared from street vendors offerings, daily survival became a terrible struggle for the proletariat.
Paris population pressures increased as it reached 400,000 souls. Death and death cleanup were apparent on city streets and alleys on a daily basis. The stench from rotting corpses was outdone only by human feces, urine, and was only kept up by the modes of work of feces cleanup practitioners. As the unrelenting cold, hunger, and violence and grace, the masses of Parisian citizens on together desperately an attempt to survive. There was little hope. Only the church can provide Solis.
Jean-Baptiste Denis explored the limits of human suffering and scientific arrogance as a lived his daily life of entitlement. While others suffered the biting cold, Denis traveled in the comfort of a chauffeur driven carriage heated by bricks.
In those days tropism flourished as snake oil dealers and charlatans congregated in marketplaces along with switch and bait artists. Street actors congregated alongside shady characters as the ruling class made its way through city streets. Heavily perfumed prostitutes walked along ridges and tempted men of all persuasions.
Denise had proven himself as a rare man as he had proven by breaking through the class barriers of the day. Perpetually driven optimistic, he had pushed his way into the world of wealth and privilege occupied by high society. It had become a doctor.
No, not a "doctor" as we would think today, but a man, and they were men, with some rudimentary knowledge of physiology and anatomy but otherwise wholly ignorant of the body structure and functions. They survived on myth and magical thinking among the general population as well the ruling class. If they could sell an idea then her idea became "medicine.".
And this is the world that Denise had joined as a novice. When he began experimenting on blood and blood transfusions, he had received his medical degree from the University of Montpellier . He returned to Paris with the idea of becoming famous. He considered a number of ideas to pursue, a blood transfusion was in the wind so to speak., That precious fluid, how it had so many metaphysical and magical implications. For, wasn't it blood that held the humors, those for radiating powers that brought health and illness to the body?
The bourgeoisie, Denise made it a point to ignore beggars when he traveled regardless how hard they pounded on the doors miscarriage. For them, the next handout might make the difference between another day of life and death.
Denise would find his fame by fully documenting human blood transfusion, a xenotransfusion. He would become personal physician to King Louis XIV. No he did not achieve his goal of successfully curing disease with blood transfusions. But he did learn a thing or two. He administered the first fully documented human blood transfusion on June 15, 1667. From the shape, he transferred 12 ounces of the sheep's blood into a 15-year-old boy. The boy had been bled with leeches at least 20 times.
The boy managed to survive the transfusion, but before long it would become evident that this sort of xenotransfusion should not continue. On another occasion he performed a transfusion on a labor would also survive. But both times it was likely due to a small amount of blood that was transferred in the transfusion. So they had allergic action which they could easily of suffered, but not great enough to cause death. His third patient to undergo transfusion was a Swedish baron by the name of Gustaf Bonde. He received two revisions and later died after the second.
Then in the winter is 1667 Denny's used calf's blood on a transfusion to one Antoine Maurcy, a mentally ill man. On the third transfusion the man died, although he did appear to recover from illnesses and his mental health issue before dying. This transfusion led to a lot of controversy in the life of the victim out the young doctor responsible for her husband's death.
Denys was charge for murder and acquitted soon after. The wife then became the object of scrutiny and was accused of causing her husband's death. Anyway, after the trial, and Deny's quit medicine. He did not take his failures lightly, which goes to the issue of suffering the consequences of performing medicine without not knowing consequences. I 1670 transfusions were manned until 1902 when Karl Landsteiner's discovery of the floor blood groups brought transfusion back to life for safe and reliable outcomes.
For certain the young Denise had competitors across the channel. Among the English a number of English doctors and natural philosophers (scientists) tried to make sense of blood mysteries. Their results have been stunning. 1628 the Englishman William Harvey made a discovery that rocked medical science. He laid the foundation medical models to come. He had usurped the previous medical models going back 2000 years. He argued that blood circulated through the body. This set off a flurry of experiments by the researchers Christopher Wren, Richard Lower, and Robert Hooke. They experimented and took matters one step closer to human transfusions.
17th Century Research
By the 17th-century research on human beings was well underway and a race arose to perfect blood transfusions. Still rare, but on the minds of many experimenters,Blood cleanup and research was frequently more involved in the domain of death. In those days human dissections and University anatomical theaters as well as private homes often took place in European scientific and social life. The natural philosophers had dissected newly defunct college, there scalpels and solves were most often put the work on executed criminals. Pope Sextus IV in 1482 sanctioned dissection of deceased criminals. Then 50 years later in 1537 it was Pope Clement VII formally okay-ed anatomical demonstrations. Now medical schools had brought this practice into their written curricula.
Hangings were public in those days and in the morning church bells would ring out to alert Londoners that someone had hung. Corpse brokers with lingering around as condemned swung piteously in the air as their heart stopped beating in the blood rushed to their feet. The brokers formed a legal vulture like wielders and dealers as they competed for access to the fresh bodies. They use these as commodities and received a good price in London for their wares. Medical practitioners and medical schools paid handsomely for these newly minted human specimens.
It was William Harvey who would seek these bodies for his research and change our understanding of the circulation of human blood. In fact we had no idea the blood circulated before our, at least it wasn't documented for our purposes. Harvey had been convinced of the value of dissection and hardly a day would pass when he didn't take part human body or an animal has increased as improved on his knowledge of anatomy and physiology. It was a rare day when one did not find half a cadaver in various modes of destruction on large wooden tables in his home.
The stench was powerful, but the Harvey the stench was practically nonexistent since he lived in it from morning to late night. On occasion he would give demonstrations to show what he had learned in the power of the creator's imagination. He performed postmortems on his father, sister, and even a close friend. He was not one to mix science with sentimentality.
It was time to shrug off tradition he argued. The scholasticism the wise ancient writers, there theories and medical practices have bound mankind to pain, agony, and certain death for far too long. Such theories were uninformed and not led by observation in hypothesis. They knew nothing of the human body.
Hippocrates, Galen, and Aristotle had made observations of monkeys, pigs, and other animals while never fully grasping the importance of experimenting. For Harvey, experiment men rolling up one's sleeves and getting bloody hands diving into the flesh of the human body. Harvey had come to the point where he would put 2000 years of Galenic knowledge to rest. Since the second century it had been believe that blood do not circulate. It made a one-way trip from the stomach to the heart. Venous blood, according to Galen, was the product of food that had been "cooked" while at resided in the digestive tract. And then it would become filtered by the liver. Then from the liver it made its way to the heart. There it seeped through the hearts chambers into invisible porous membranes. The body seat arose from the heart's actions would serve to burn blood like kindling in the furnace. We would not question Galen's mindset because the fireplace, the furnace remained a stable in the lives of most people. Human respiration as well as respiration in general is a matter of blowing off "smoke" which was the fumes generated by the hearts furnace.
So as simple as this idea seems today and silly to most, and help to explain the early bloodletting mania that drove many people to death in the hands of their physicians. A fever was considered a certain sign that too much blood was in the system may have been choking the furnace. Like a bonfire, furnace could also go out of control. Bloodletting had become unquestioned in the Middle Ages and went on for centuries and became the "care" for almost every type of human illness and disease.
So phlebotomy came to clear the mind and memory while it cleaned out the stomach. It served the brain well warming the eyes to stop tears. A whole catalog carers came to arise from bloodletting, at least in the minds of the Galenic practitioners and scholastic scholars. We would find there was no rhyme or reason to this magical thinking other than the daily experience generalized onto the human body and its workings.
The idea of the "humors" lay at the heart of the early modern periods profound belief in bloodletting. Galenism told humankind that the body was ruled by four different bodily fluids known as the "humors" and each carried specific properties. Now, if these seemingly archetypal type human conditions seem so while, keep in mind that in Asian countries they had and Yang archetypes had served to indicate the causes of illness and disease.
But in Western societies, the blood, phlegm, cholera (yellow bile), and melancholy (black bile) were believed to mix in certain proportions. These proportions, like the Earth's temperature relative to its carbon dioxide parts per million (ppm), would cause an imbalance in the body. Each individual had a specific balance in some cases. These humoral balances were called the "complexion."
Good health was the result of a perfectly balanced complexion. So getting the bodies humors back in balance by purging, by using laxatives, and by removing blood from the body tears were available when used by a trained physician.
In those days in those days medical practitioners were also known as Barber-surgeons. One need only walk down the street to find one easily enough because the bloody pan could easily be found sitting outside the practitioners door. On occasion bloody rags would litter the area indicating that the barber-surgeon had been at work. Today's red and white marbles signify the historical lineage found in onetime barbershops.
We should place this peer to history in the context of an emerging science from the practitioners of magic in some cases. Astronomy and astrology were at times not distinctly separate. The two were not easily discerned before the early 18th century. Astrological charts of times indicated periods for bleeding patients from the position of stars on the charts.
These "bleeding charts" indicated the area of the body govern by particular stars. The phases of the moon and the dates of projected eclipses were also used as typical drawings of astrologically based bleeding points. And if this type of magical thinking is not enough for the reader, consider that the heart was connected to Leo the lion; the feet, to Pisces, and the gut, to Libra. And most likely, when the medical practitioner was about his magical chart, you simply made it up as he went along. People paid for the services.
Let us not forget the blood cleanup was taking part during these bloodletting sessions. No thought was given to hygiene practices as far as clubs and mass. Recall illnesses were not a matter of germs because the theory of germs and disease remain for the 1880s. No common these days human blood was another fluid. The humors were the source of disease then, so blood cleanup practitioners we have to wait for several centuries before entering the field of biohazard cleanup.
Thankfully, bloodletting would fall out of favor during the 19 century as the work of Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister brought humankind to understand that disease was caused by germs, not humors. These theories were accompanied by renewed emphasis on evidence-based research and facts. Before, though, in 1835 the French Dr. PA or Charles Alexandre instigated epidemiology as a form of medical practice. He had interviewed at least 2000 patients in the Paris hospital La Pitie. He recorded autopsies. Interviewed patients to learn about their illness. He would follow their diseases and how their diseases progressed. He noted the treatments offered for these diseases.
Use data to assess bloodletting as a practice. He did not entirely condemn bloodletting, though he did conclude that this type of medical practice was far overblown. Before long bloodletting was known to medical history as an odd artifact of medicine that led to the pain and suffering the many millions of people.
It would take decades before this form of data accumulation and assessment would become more routine. We would find the French monk Emile Durkheim studies and to suicide and accumulation of data for statistical analysis arise toward the end of the 1900s as well. Science was in the wind than. Galenic humoralism and bloodletting were on the way out but as today, it still took a long time for people to change the way they thought.
Now William Harvey remained skeptical of anatomical examination of endeavors because as good as they were, they were dead. He knew the only way he could explore his hypothesis on the the valves permitting the flow of blood and inhibiting its flow, would be to experiment on a living human being. So Harvey needed to see blood in motion to trace its flow through the body. He needed to fill the pulsating hearts of his subjects. So at this point in history, a sad part of history, vivisection of living animals became a practice. So many feral animals made their way through the streets of London that Harvey could easily coax them into his laboratory with a handful of food.
With this new bounty of surgical subjects he tried to quickly catch the heart and blood in motion. The animals grain in agony and twist and turn as a finally succumbed to a painful death. Later animal-rights people would scream "bloody murder" in reaction to these terrible practices. The medical practitioners into the nature blood would argue that these animals were merely "machines" written by instinct and not conscious in the way that human beings are conscious of itself.
Today we hear similar arguments used to describe the condition of the fetus, but there is a difference between the two, the fetus and the screaming agony of a sentient animal. Before long Harvey learn that eels, snakes, and squid were more cooperative. "Thank goodness for this" we might think.
Now the beating hearts would give Harvey a chance to plot contracting and relaxing veins and valves is the heartbeat. That is stall I can systolic motion actions became a parent as the heart reddened just a little bit with each blood movement. The value in using cold-blooded subjects for blood research cannot be understated. Because of their cold-blooded condition there beating hearts pump less rapidly than the megamillion species.
Combining his vivisection knowledge with his dissection knowledge Harvey could quantify for the first time in all history how blood moved to the body. He could easily empty the blood from a chamber of dissected human heart and tell out collected about 2 ounces of blood. He could estimate the total fluid that the heart pushed in and out during each beat. By multiplying the number of heartbeats per every half hour, he could tell that almost 540 pounds of blood would be produced. Using the Galenic model of the body, these 540 pounds of blood would burn off in the galenic furnace, the heart.
Harvey could tell that the blood did not stop at the heart for a one-way trip. It was recycled. The body of the heart allowed for valves to open and close. He could do is research and then wipe his hands free of blood, at least as free as blood cleanup would allow in those days. He would set at his candlelit table and draw sketches of his findings and make notations for himself and others to follow in the future.
William Harvey had demonstrated how the action of the valves to and from the heart cause the free flow of blood to and from the heart and also obstructed. He showed that a leaky valve could lead to death. In the following decades many of England's most promising minds worked hard night and day trying to prove or disprove Harvey's claims in this is how science works. A researcher find something novel and the environment. And then comes to a conclusion or forms a hypothesis about their finding, makes the finding known, and then others try to prove or disprove the finding.
This is called "peer review" and peer review works at the heart of science. This is a very competitive field, medical science, in any publications in the field meet staunch criticism. It is not different today with climate science and theories of the new climate change. Peer reviewed journals carry new findings on climate science just as in Harvey's day in the following centuries peer-reviewed journals would critique William Harvey's demonstration of the action of valves controlling the flow blood to the human body.
Christopher Wren made a name for himself when he devised a machine with the help of William Patty. The two had easily sowed seeds by drilling a hole in the soil. When also ingeniously developed a prototype of a double writing machine in which two pins were mounted on a frame and can be moved simultaneously to produce to get copies of a single document. Because letters were an important means of communication, Wren's writing device became invaluable. Even so, Patty took credit for the device when it was presented Oliver Cromwell. The air was 1650. Earlier, and 60 and 56 Wren had worked alongside William Harvey had a dissection table as they explore the circulatory system for human blood. From Harvey the younger Wren would learn great ideas and procedures in the field of medical science; for Harvey had studied issues of damage to the body and how the body heals itself. He had ask, "how was it that a person could be mauled by a dog, infected with terrible wounds, suffer "a fever and other horrible symptoms" and he'll? He also wanted no how was it that a person can receive a dogbite and then suffered terrible infection throughout their body. He concluded that a one's contamination moved through the bloodstream to the heart and from their poison circulated freely to the rest of the body. Wren carried out an experiment with this notion in mind. He injected the veins of a dog with wine and ale. Before long the dog became inebriated. To reverse the alcohol's effects, Wren then injected 2 ounces of emetic into the dog. The dog commenced a vomiting violently. Then the dog died.
Excited, the young Wren happily bragged to the influential John Wilkins and his friend, the chemist Robert Boyle. He had shown the world that he could easily and quickly convey any liquid poison into the the entire bloodstream of an animal like a dog. Boyle called upon Wren to demonstrate his experiment. Young Wren on a large dog, strapped it to a table, and exposed a large vein in the dog's leg. Although the dog struggled violently, Wren managed to slide a small group plate under the veined old in place. Using a thin pipe, he managed to inject a small dose of opium into the open vein. Quickly, the OPN appeared to reach the dog spring and other parts of its body. As we might expect, once freed from its restraints on the table and placed on the ground, the dog stumbled and continued with its life in a drug stupor. Later the dog return to its normal life in grew fat until somebody stole it. What we take away from this experiment is that in the field of blood cleanup, entities enter the bloodstream and we can leave these entities in place by artificially injecting them into the bloodstream, or given the wherewithal, we can form blood cleanup vein by vein, artery by artery, Oregon by Oregon. Now, many others would test infusion of drugs and other substances on animals while trying to prove or disprove Harvey's theories on circulation. What they learned is basically, Harvey had laid the theory of circulation before the world. Then, the first canine the canine blood transfusions would take place.
Harvey would died in 1657 and Wren with then moved to London to take up the prestigious post of Grasham Professor of astronomy. He continued with his medical experience, nonetheless. He hooked up with Dr. Timothy Clarke, anatomist recently moved to the capital, and the two went to work on infusions. They show that injected "many different kinds of waters, beers, milk, weight, broths, winds, alcohol and even blood, is really no major deal once the technique was learned and applied successfully. The two men shifted their trials from dogs to men and in the fall of 1657 met the home of French Amb. to the Commonwealth, and there, the Duke of Bordeaux required a servant to undergo transfusion for the sake of science in progress. Things did not work out well. They injected a tiny bit of emetic crocus metallorum into the servants veins and the servant fainted. This freaked out the young Wren and Clark and they swore never again to test on a human being.
This event would leave a lasting impression on Wren. He gave up medical experiments but he continued thinking about circulation of the blood well convincing himself not to test blood on human beings again. He would find another way to perform blood cleanup if he could.
Now the era of vivisection was in hand and referred to as "age of vivisection.". Lime animals were used in response to Cartesian. Philosophy readers will remember that human and animal bodies were fundamentally similar because a function like a machine. "It is nature," wrote the cards. For him, the organs function like wheels and springs in all animals and humans were simply functioning machines. So collections of tubes, pumps, pulleys, levers, where the same and similar in both humans and other animals although incapable of language, emotion, and reason, animals were not considered really worthy of our sentimentality and pity. So vivisection was carried out liberally and gingerly by anatomist. The anatomist had taken the cart seriously when he wrote that the critters in our household were no different than parrots and magpies uttering sounds little significance. For after all, they cannot speak as we do, that is, they cannot give "evidence that they think of what they say."
Now animal-rights people usually think of their pets sentimentally and with passion. But for Cartesian's, the spats were merely responding to pleasure and pain to external stimuli and were little more than machines. The cart should believe that the animals do not feel pain and his followers believe the same. The beast-machine became a license to inflict pain and suffering on critters. This idea continues to this day. But it is not licensed under the rubric of "science." Basically, they believe that animals do not have feelings even though their responses indicated pain and suffering as well as anxiety.
Vivisection became a way for natural philosophers (scientists) to promote "physical-mathematical experimental learning" on sentiment, domesticated animals. In their weekly meetings at Gresham College in Bishopsgate they shared their findings as they perform vivisection on helpless creditors.
Over 90 experiments were performed on critters in the first four years of the Royal Society. Many other experiments were conducted as well but not documented. Throughout the land vivisection will be carried out in households where young and old experimenters would seek knowledge are simply mimic the ways of the ruling class natural philosophers. Robert Hooke performed many vivisection's. He was known for his work with the microscope and being the first to use the term "sell" in biology. Both Hooke and Boyle were founding members of the Royal Society. They created the pneumatick engine allowing them to create vacuums. In these vacuums a place tiny critters like larks, sparrows, mice, even cats and ducks. The horrors of the vacuum and terrible pain, suffering, and anxiety by these tiny critters could be witnessed through the glass structures of the vacuum tubes. Some animals were suffocated until they lost consciousness had not died. By allowing air back into the chamber the animal would be allowed to resuscitate and then suffer the same indignities as the experiment was performed again. Biblical beliefs were used to justify this form of torture just as the days cement heads use biblical beliefs to justify the domination and destruction of creation:
"It is no great presumption to conceive that the rest of the creatures were made for man since he alone of the visible world is able to enjoy, use, and relish many of the other creatures, and to discern the omniscience, all mightiness, and goodness of the author in them."
Vivisection became even more horrific under the power of the gruesome vacuum chambers. With blood streaming from their experimental victims, members of the Royal Society were known to dispassionately force tubes down and animals windpipe and forced air into the animals lungs. Meanwhile, the animals heart and belly were exposed. Mechanistic theories were the rage of the a as any sort of medical ethics remained in its embryon
ic stages. The church remains silent.
Hooke can reach a point in his life, though, were became difficult to continue. He would write:
The other experiment (which I show heartily, I confess, make again, because it was cruel) was with the dog, which, by means of a pair bellows, wherewith I filled his lungs, and suffered them to empty again, I was able to preserve alive as long as I could desire, after I had wholly open the thorax, and cut off all the ribs, and open the belly….My design was to make some inquiries into the nature respiration. Then I show heartily be induced to make any further trials of this kind, because the torture the creature; but certainly the Inquirer would be very noble, if we can find a way to so justify the creature, as that it
might not be sensible.
So Cartesian arguments were not totally convincing talk experimenters once the blood and guts were apparent in the animal laid bare while suffering terminal agony. The Solis machines that were called "animal" were convenient 17th-century subject for vivisection. But even they pragmatic and objective Robert Hooke when confess, the Cartesian arguments went so far before the obvious suffering of the poor animals cannot be ignored. If only it were so today and people would simply care for the lesser creatures in our world.
The Aristotelian notion of a "great chain of being" in which all living substances Saturday Cpl. "vegetative soul" no longer pervaded universities and colleges. The idea of a "sensitive soul" had been overridden by the new modern Cartesian worldview. Yes, humans might continue with their "intellectual soul" but not as the derivative of Aristotelian thinking. Knowledge, memory, and reason would prove humanities "intellectual so." The human mind had proven humanities place at the top of what was once the "chain of being." The modern era had arrived with Cartesian is a and not only the creatures but the entire planet became a machine and as any GPS will prove, the earth is been measured down to the last inch for exportation.
The idea that the mind and the soul were embodied continued. The Old Testament had remarked that the soul was part of blood itself. It would be heartbreaking from this motion. For Galen at resided in the liver. The liver was the seat of blood production. Christian doctrine would then hold that the soul moved from the blood to the ventricles of the brain where it was protected from the corrupt, earthly forces. The so floated in the brain Longworth blood and inhabited the body in this way although it was not of the body.
In the modern era with the Cartesian eviction of the soul from the body, René Descartes theory become the subject of great scorn and criticism. But this did not stop vivisection.
Now the earlier conception of the soul's migration with the blood to the brain came under scrutiny by researchers. They were lame blood on tables in the ground from critters and humans as a made blood cleanup and daily feature of life. They had laid bare the place of the soul autopsies.